Here are some of the reports, publications and conference presentations that SMRU Consulting have produced.

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Peer Reviewed Publications


Angadi, K., Wood, J., Turner, J., Palmer K., & Tollit, D. (2020) Burrard Inlet Underwater Noise Characterization: 2019 Final Report. SMRU Consulting North America.

Booth CG, Sinclair RR and Harwood J. (2020). Methods for Monitoring for the Population Consequences of Disturbance in Marine Mammals: A Review. Front. Mar. Sci. 7:115. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00115

P Li, P., Liua, X., Palmer, K.J., Fleishman, E., Gillespie, D., Nosal, E.M., Shiu, Y., (2020). Learning Deep Models from Synthetic Data for Extracting Dolphin Whistle Contours, arXiv preprint arXiv:2005.08894

Shiu, Y., Palmer, K.J., Roch, M., Fleishman, E., Liu, X., Nosal, E., Helble, T., Cholewiak, D., Gillespie, D. and Klinck, H., (2020). Publisher Correction: Deep neural networks for automated detection of marine mammal species. Scientific Reports, 10(1).

Turner, J. C., Moorberg, C. J., Wong, A., Shea, K., Waldrop, M. P., Turetsky, M. R., & Neumann, R. B. (2020). Getting to the Root of Plant‐Mediated Methane Emissions and Oxidation in a Thermokarst Bog. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences.


Booth, C.G. (2019). Food for thought: Harbor porpoise foraging behavior and diet inform vulnerability to disturbance. Marine Mammal Science 2019.

Joy, R., Tollit, D., Wood, J., MacGillivray, A., Li, Z., Trounce, K & Robinson, O. (2019). Potential Benefits of Vessel Slowdowns on Endangered Southern Resident Killer Whales. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, p.344.

Kastelein, R.A., Helder-hoek, L., Booth, C., Jennings, N. and Leopold, M. (2019). High Levels of Food Intake in Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena): Insight into Recovery from Disturbance. Aquatic Mammals, 45(4), pp.380-388.

Watson, J., Joy, R., Tollit, D., Thornton, S.J. and Auger-Méthé, M. (2019). A general framework for estimating the spatio-temporal distribution of a species using multiple data types. arXiv preprint arXiv:1911.00151.

Wilson LJ, Harwood J, Booth CG, Joy R, Harris CM. (2019). A decision framework to identify populations that are most vulnerable to the population level effects of disturbance. Conservation Science and Practice. 2019, c149.

Verfuss, U.K., Aniceto, A.S., Harris, D.V., Gillespie, D., Fielding, S., Jiménez, G., Johnston, P., Sinclair, R.R.,  Sivertsen, A., Solbø, S.A., Storvold, R., Biuw, M., Wyatt, R. (2019). A review of unmanned vehicles for the detection and monitoring of marine fauna. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Volume 140, 2019, Pages 17-29.


Joy, R, Wood J, Sparling C, Tollit DJ, Copping A, and McConnell B. (2018). Empirical measures of harbor seal behavior and avoidance of an operational tidal turbine. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Volume 136, November 2018, Pages 92-106

Malinka, C, Gillespie D, Macaulay J, Joy R, and Sparling C. (2018). First in-situ passive acoustic monitoring for marine mammals during operation of a tidal turbine. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Ser 590:247-266.

Pirotta, E., Booth, C.G., Costa, D.P., Fleishman, E., Kraus, S.D., Lusseau, D., Moretti, D., New, L.F., Schick, R.S., Schwarz, L.K. and Simmons, S.E., 2018. Understanding the population consequences of disturbanceEcology and Evolution8(19), pp.9934-9946.

Verfuss, UK, Gillespie D, Gordon J, Marques T, Miller B, Plunkett R., Theriault J, Tollit D, Zitterbart D, Hubert P, and Thomas L. (2018). Comparing methods suitable for monitoring marine mammals in low visibility conditions during seismic surveys. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Volume 126, January 2018, Pages 1-18


Jones, E, Sparling CE, McConnell BJ, Morris CM, and Smout S (2017) Fine-scale harbour seal usage for informed marine spatial planningScientific Reports 7, Article number: 11581.

Pine, MK., Wang, D., Porter, L., and Wang, K. (2017). Investigating the spatiotemporal variation of fish choruses to help identify important foraging habitat for Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis. ICES Journal of Marine Science.

Robertson, FC, Koski WR, Brandon JR, Thomas T, and Trites AW (2017) Correction factors account for the availability bias of bowhead whales exposed to seismic operations in the Beaufort Sea. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 15: 35-44.

Sparling, CE, Lonergan M, and McConnell B (2017) Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) around an operational tidal turbine in Strangford Narrows: No barrier effect but small changes in transit behaviour. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. DOI 10.1002/aqc.2790.

Thomas, L, Booth CG, Rosel PE, Hohn A, Litz J, and Schwacke LH (2017) Where were they from? Modelling the source stock of dolphins stranded after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill using genetic and stable isotope data. Endangered Species Research Vol. 33: 253-264.

Tollit, DJ, Fritz L, Joy R, Miller K, Schulze A, Thomason J, Walker W, Zeppelin T, and Gelatt TS (2017) Diet of endangered Steller sea lions in the Aleutian Islands: New insights from DNA detections and bio-energetic reconstructions. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 95(11): 853–868, year 2017, doi: 10.1139/cjz-2016-0253.

Wilson, LJ, Grellier K, and Hammond PS (2017) Improved estimates of digestion correction factors and passage rates for harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) prey in the northeast Atlantic. Marine Mammal Science. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12436.


Ainsworth, LM, Dean CB, and Joy R (2016) Zero-inflated spatial models: application and interpretation. International Symposium in Statistics 2015 Proceedings Volume on Advances and Challenges in Parametric and Non-Parametric Analysis of Correlated Data. Springer New York, NY. 75-96pp

Band, B, Sparling CE, Thompson, D, Onoufriou, J, San Martin, E and West, N (2016) Refining Estimates of Collision Risk for Harbour Seals and Tidal Turbines. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 7 No 17.

Booth, CG (2016) Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies. In The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II. Springer New York. pp. 101-108.

Donovan, C, Harwood J, King SL, Booth CG, Caneco B, and Walker C (2016) Expert elicitation methods in quantifying the consequences of acoustic disturbance from offshore renewable energy developments. In The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II. Springer New York. pp. 231-237.

Gomez, C, Lawson, JW, Wright AJ, Buren AD, Tollit DJ, and Lesage V (2016) A systematic review on the behavioural responses of wild marine mammals to noise: the disparity between science and policy. Can. J. Zool. 94: 801-819.

Harwood, J, King SL, Booth CG, Donovan C, Schick RS, Thomas L, and New L (2016) Understanding the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance for Marine Mammals. In The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II. Springer New York. pp. 417-423.

Robertson, FC, Koski WR, and Trites AW (2016) Behavioural responses affect distribution analyses of bowhead whales in the vicinity of seismic surveys. Marine Ecological Progress Series 549: 243-262 DOI: 10.3354/meps11665.

Smultea, MA, Brueggeman J, Robertson FC, Fertl D, Bacon C, Rowlett RA, and Green GA (2016) Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) behaviour near icebreaker operations in the Chukchi Sea, 1991, Arctic. 69(2): 177-184.

Sparling, CE, Gillespie D, Hastie H, Gordon J, Macaulay J, Malinka C, Wu M, and McConnell B (2016) Scottish Government Demonstration Strategy: Trialing Methods for Tracking the Fine Scale Underwater Movements of Marine Mammals in Areas of Marine Renewable Energy Development. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 7 No 14.

Verfuss, UK, Sparling CE, Arnot C, Judd A, and Coyle M (2016) Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals. In The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II. Springer New York. pp. 1175-1182.

Viers, S, Viers V, and Wood JD (2016) Ship noise extends to frequencies used for echolocation by endangered killer whales. PeerJ, 4:e1657; DOI 10.7717/peerj.1657.


Joy, R, Dowd MG, Battaile BC, Lestenkof PM, Sterling JT, Trites AW and Routledge RD. (2015) Linking northern fur seal dive behavior to environmental variables in the eastern Bering Sea. Ecosphere. 6(5): 75. DOI 10.1890/ES 14-00314.1.

King, SL, Schick RS, Donovan C, Booth CG, Burgman M, Thomas L, and Harwood J (2015) An interim framework for assessing the population consequences of disturbance. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 6(10): 1150-1158.

Muir, JE, Ainsworth L, Joy R,  Racca R,  Bychkov Y, Gailey G,  VLadimirov V,  Starodymov S, and Bröker K (2015) Distance from shore of gray whales during a seismic survey off Sakhalin Island, Russia. Endangered Species Research. DOI: 10.3354/esr00701.

Muir, JE, Joy R, Bychkov Y, Bröker K, Gailey G,  VLadimirov V, Starodymov S, and  Gailey G (2015) Delineation of a coastal gray whale feeding area using opportunistic and systematic survey effort. Endangered Species Research. 29(2): 147-160.

Savo, V, Joy R, Caneva G, and McClatchey WC (2015) Plant selection for ethnobotanical uses on the Amalfi Coast (Southern Italy). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 11(1): 58. DOI: 10.1186/s13002-015-0039-y

Stricker, CA, Christ AM, Wunder MB, Doll AC, Farley SD, Rea LD, Rosen DAS, and Tollit DJ (2015) Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope trophic enrichment factors for Steller sea lion vibrissae relative to milk and fish/invertebrate diets. Marine Ecological Progress Series. 523: 255-266 DOI: 10.3354/meps11205.

Tollit, DJ, Wong MA, and Trites AW (2015) Diet composition of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Frederick Sound, southeast Alaska: a comparison of quantification methods using scats to describe temporal and spatial variabilities. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 93(999): 361-376.


Hastie, GD, Donovan C, Götz T, and Janik VM (2014) Behavioral responses by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) to high frequency sonar. Marine pollution bulletin, 79(1): 205-210.

Hastie, GD, Gillespie DM, Gordon JC, Macaulay JD, McConnell BJ, and Sparling CE (2014) Tracking Technologies for Quantifying Marine Mammal Interactions with Tidal Turbines: Pitfalls and Possibilities. In Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions. Springer Netherlands. pp. 127-139

Maclean, I, Inger R, Benson D, Booth CG, Embling CB, Grecian WJ. … and Bearhop S (2014)  Resolving issues with environmental impact assessment of marine renewable energy installations. Frontiers in Marine Science, 1, 75.

2013 and earlier

Chatwin, TA, Joy R, and Burger AE (2013) Set-back distances to protect nesting and roosting seabirds off Vancouver Island from boat disturbance. Waterbirds. 36 (1): 42–51.

Hiscock, K, Bayley D, Pade N, Lacey C, Cox E, and Enever R (2013) Prioritizing action for recovery and conservation of marine species: a case study based on species of conservation importance around England. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 23(1): 88-110.

New, LF, Harwood J, Thomas L, Donovan C, Clark JS, Hastie GD, Thompson PM, Cheney B, and Lusseau D (2013) Modelling the biological significance of behavioural change in coastal bottlenose dolphins in response to disturbance. Functional Ecology, 27(2): 314-322.

Sayigh, L, Quick NJ, Hastie GD, and Tyack P (2013) Repeated call types in short‐finned pilot whales, Globicephala macrorhynchusMarine Mammal Science, 29(2): 312-324.

Thompson, PM, Hastie GD, Nedwell J, Barham R, Brookes KL, Cordes LS, Bailey H, and McLean N (2013) Framework for assessing impacts of pile-driving noise from offshore wind farm construction on a harbour seal population. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 43: 73-85.

Kaschner, K, Quick NJ, Jewell R, Williams R, and Harris CM (2012) Global coverage of cetacean line-transect surveys: status quo, data gaps and future challenges. PloS one, 7(9): e44075.

Pirotta, E, Milor R, Quick NJ, Moretti D, Di Marzio N. et al. (2012) Vessel Noise Affects Beaked Whale Behavior: Results of a Dedicated Acoustic Response Study. PLoS ONE 7(8):e42535. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042535.

Dowd, M, and Joy R (2011) Estimating behavioural parameters in animal movement models using a state-augmented particle filter. Ecology. 92: 568–575

Fahlman, A, Loring SH, Ferrigno M, Moore C, Early G, Niemeyer M, Lentell B, Wenzel F, Joy R, and Moore M. (2011) Inflation and deflation pressure-volume loops in breath-hold diving marine mammals. Journal of Experimental Biology. 214: 3822-3828.

Frère, CH, Seddon, J, Palmer, C, Porter L, and Parra, GJ. (2011) Multiple lines of evidence for an Australasian geographic boundary in the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis): population or species divergence? Conservation Genetics, 12(6): 1633-1638.

Gillespie, D, Maginnis A, and Hastie GD. (2011) Long term remote monitoring of cetacean calls using a solar powered autonomous detector. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130(4): 2500-2500.

Polagye, B, Wood JD, Bassett C, Tollit DJ, and Thomson J. (2011) Behavioral response of harbor porpoise to vessel noise in a tidal strait. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 2368 (2011);

Walker, CG, MacKenzie ML, Donovan CR, Kidney D, Quick NJ, and Hastie GD. (2011) Classification of animal dive tracks via automatic landmarking, principal components analysis and clustering. Ecosphere 2: 92.

Wood, JD, Foreman P, Veirs V, and Veirs S. (2011) Shipping noise and vocal compensation by Southern Resident killer whales: Haro Strait as a study case. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 129(4): 2607-2607.

Faustino, CES, Silva MA, Marques TA, and Thomas L. (2010) Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores archipelago. Arquipelago. Life and Marine Sciences 27: 49-58.

Svärd C, Fahlman A, Rosen DAS, Joy R, and Trites AW. (2009) Fasting affects the surface and diving metabolic rates of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Aquatic Biology. 8: 71-82

Thompson, P, Tollit DJ, Wood D, Corpe H, Hammond P, and Mackay A. (1997) Estimating Harbour Seal Abundance and Status in an Estuarine Habitat in North-East Scotland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34(1): 43-52.



Booth, C.G, Heinis, F & Harwood J. (2019). Updating the Interim PCoD Model: Workshop Report – New transfer functions for the effects of disturbance on vital rates in marine mammal species. Report Code SMRUC-BEI-2018-011, submitted to the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), February 2019 (unpublished).

Ransijn, J.M., Booth, C. & Smout, S.C. (2019). A calorific map of harbour porpoise prey in the North Sea. JNCC Report No. 633. JNCC, Peterborough, ISSN 0963 8091.

Verfuss, U.K., Sinclair, R.R. & Sparling, C.E. (2019). A review of noise abatement systems for offshore wind farm construction noise, and the potential for their application in Scottish waters. Scottish Natural Heritage Research Report No. 1070.

Verfuss, U.K., Sinclair, R.R. & Sparling, C.E. (2019). A review of noise abatement systems for offshore wind farm construction noise, and the potential for their application in Scottish waters. Presented by Sinclair, RR. at the Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life Conference, Den Haag, July 2019.

Wilson, L.J., Booth, C.G., Burt, L., Verfuss, U.K. & Thomas, L. (2019). Design of a monitoring plan for the Southern North Sea candidate Special Area of Conservation and wider area. JNCC Report 629, ISSN 0963-8091.


Booth, C.G, & Heinis, F. (2018). Updating the Interim PCoD Model: Workshop Report – New transfer functions for the effects of permanent threshold shifts on vital rates in marine mammal species. Report Code SMRUC-UOA-2018-006, submitted to the University of Aberdeen and Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), June 2018 (unpublished).

Hornsea Project Four Offshore Wind Farm. EIA: Scoping Report, Chapter 6.5 Marine Mammals. October 2018.

Seagreen Alpha and Bravo. EIA Report Volume I, Chapter 10 – Marine Mammals. September 2018.

Seagreen Alpha and Bravo. EIA Report Volume III, Appendix 10A – Marine Mammal Baseline Technical Report. September 2018.

Moray West Offshore Wind Farm. EIA Report Volume 2, Chapter 9 – Marine Mammals. July 2018.

Moray West Offshore Wind Farm. EIA Report Volume 4, Technical Appendix 9.1 – Marine Mammal Baseline Characterisation Report. July 2018.

Hornsea Project Three Offshore Wind Farm. Environmental Statement Volume 2, Chapter 4 – Marine Mammals. May 2018.

Hornsea Project Three Offshore Wind Farm. Environmental Statement Volume 5, Annex 4.1 – Marine Mammal Technical Report. May 2018.

Thanet Extension Offshore Wind Farm. Environmental Statement Volume 2, Chapter 7 – Marine Mammals. June 2018.


Booth, C, Oedekoven C, Gillespie D, Macaulay J, et al. (2017) Assessing the viability of density estimation for cetaceans from passive acoustic fixed sensors throughout the life cycle of an offshore EandP field development. Report Number SMRUC-OGP-2017-001.

Booth, CG, Harwood J, Plunkett R, Mendes S, and Walker R. (2017) Using the Interim PCoD framework to assess the potential impacts of offshore wind developments in Eastern English Waters on harbour porpoises in the North Sea. Natural England Joint Report, Number 024 York.

Harwood, J, and Booth CG. (2017) The application of an interim PCoD (PCoD Lite) protocol and its extension to other marine mammal populations and sites: Final Report. Report code SMRUC-ONR-2016-004, submitted to the Office of Naval Research – Marine Mammal and Biology Program, March 2017 (unpublished).

Joy, R., Wood J, and Tollit DJ. (2017) Modelling of SRKW Behavioural Besponses and Masking from Vessel Noise Exposure during the Haro Strait Slowdown Trial (Pre-trial interim report).

Joy, R, Wood J, Robertson F, and Tollit D. (2017). Force Marine Mammal Environmental Effects Monitoring Program –1st Year (2017) Monitoring Report. Prepared by SMRU Consulting (Canada) on behalf of FORCE.

Robertson, FC, Williams R, Wood J, Ashe EA. (2017) Effects of ship noise on calling rates of humpback whales in British Columbia . Prepared by SMRU Consulting North America and Oceans Initiative for the ECHO Program of the Vancouver Fraser Port Authority. 20pp.

Sparling, CE, Thompson D and Booth CG. (2017) Guide to Population Models used in Marine Mammal Impact Assessment. JNCC Report 607, ISSN 0963-8901.

Thompson, D, Onoufriou J, Patterson W and Plunkett R. (2017) Strategic post consent monitoring of breeding harbour seals at the Wash SAC. Presented by Plunkett, R. at the Conference on Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts, Estoril, Portugal, September 2017.

Tollit, DJ, Wood J, and Joy R. (2017) FORCE Marine Mammal EEMP –Year 2 Interim Report (Deployment 1). Prepared by SMRU Consulting (Canada) on behalf of FORCE, Sept 26, 2017.

Tollit, DJ, Wood J, and Joy R. (2017) FORCE Marine Mammal EEMP –Year 2 Interim Report. Prepared by SMRU Consulting (Canada) on behalf of FORCE, August 15, 2017.


Booth, CG, Donnovan C, Plunkett R, and Harwood J. (2016) Using an interim PCoD protocol to assess the effects of disturbance associated with US Navy exercises on marine mammal populations: Final Report. Report code SMRUC-ONR-2016-004, submitted to the Office of Naval Research – Marine Mammal and Biology Program, February 2016 (unpublished).

Copping, A, Sather N, Hanna L, Whiting J, Zydlewski G, Staines G, Gill A, Hutchison I, O’Hagan A, Simas T, Bald J, Sparling CE, Wood JD, and Masden E. (2016) Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World. pp 224.

Gillespie, D, Sparling CE, Macaulay J, Malinka C. (2016) Interim report: Performance of the passive acoustic monitoring system during commissioning of the Delta Stream tidal turbine in Ramsey Sound, Wales. SMRU Report, January 2016.

Nabe-Nielsen, J, and Harwood J. (2016) Comparison of the iPCoD and DEPONS models for modelling population consequences of noise on harbour porpoises. Aarhus University, DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, 22 pp. Scientific Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy No. 186

Pickard, D, Hall AW, and Joy R. (2016) Recommendations for improved implementation of the Forest and Range Evaluation Program (FREP) Sampling Design. Prepared for Ministry of Forests

Plunkett, R, and Sparling CE. (2016) Dounreay Trì Floating Wind Demonstration Project Environmental Statement Chapter 10 Marine mammals, basking sharks and turtles. Report Number: SMRUC-HID-2016-003. Submitted To Hi-Def Aerial Surveying Limited, March 2016.

Tollit, DJ, Harwood J, Booth CG, Thomas L, New L, and Wood JD. (2016) Cook Inlet Beluga Whale PCoD Expert Elicitation Workshop Report. Prepared by SMRU Consulting North America. 29 September 2016, SMRUC-NA-NOAA0915, 54p.

Tollit, DJ, Joy R, and J Wood. (2016) A comparison of Southern Resident killer whale response to noise from commercial vessels and whale watch boats. Prepared for the ECHO Program of Port of Metro Vancouver.

Verfuss, UK, Aniceto AS, Biuw M, Fielding S, Gillespie D, Harris D, Jimenez G, Johnston P, Plunkett R, Sivertsen A, Solbo A, Storvold R, and Wyatt R. (2016)  Understanding the current state of autonomous technologies to improve/expand observation and detection of marine species. Report number SMRUC-OGP2015-015 Provided to IOGP, July 2016.

Verfuss, UK, Gillespie D, Gordon J, Marques T, Miller B, Plunkett R, Theriault J, Tollit DJ, Zitterbart D, Hurbert P, and Thomas L. (2016) Low- Visibility Real-Time Monitoring Techniques Review. Report Number SMRUM-OGP2015-002. Provided to IOGP, June 2016.

Verfuss, UK, Plunkett R, Booth CG, and Harwood J. (2016) Assessing The Benefit Of Noise Reduction Measures During Offshore Wind Farm Construction On Harbour Porpoises. Report Number SMRUC-WWF-2016-008.

Wood, JD, Joy R, and Sparling CE. (2016) Harbor Seal – Tidal Turbine Collision Risk Models. An Assessment of Sensitivities. Report by SMRU Consulting. pp 57.


Booth, CG, Sparling CE, Plunkett R, Scott-Haywood L, and Rexstad E. (2015) Collision Risk Simulation Modelling: Marine Mammals and Deep Green Device at Holyhead Deep–Final Report -Revised 23rd June 2015. Report number SMRUC-MIN-2015-007 provided to Minesto UK Ltd, June 2015 (unpublished).

Sparling, C, Sams C, Stephenson S, Joy R, Wood J, Gordon J, Thompson D, Plunkett R, Miller B, and Götz T. (2015) The use of acoustic deterrents for the mitigation of injury to marine mammals during pile driving for offshore wind farm construction. ORJIP Project 4: Stage 1 of Phase 2. SMRUC-TCT-2015-006, Prepared for Scotland’s Carbon Trust.

Joy, R, Wood J, and Miller B. (2015) The response of Chinese white dolphins to construction related to the Hong Kong-Zhuai-Macao bridge: a synopsis. Prepared for the Hong Kong Port.

Sparling, CE, Smith K, Benjamins S, Wilson B, Gordon J, Stringell T, Morris C, Hastie G, Thompson D, and Pomeroy P. (2015) Guidance to inform marine mammal site characterisation requirements at wave and tidal stream energy sites in Wales. No. 82. NRW Evidence Report, 2015.

Tollit, DJ. et al. (2015) Proposed Environmental Effects Monitoring Programs 2015-2020 Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy (FORCE). pp184.

Wood, J, Joy R, Tollit DJ, and Miller B. (2015) Killer Whale Behavioural Response Estimates to Commercial Vessel Traffic in the Western Juan de Fuca Strait. Prepared for Port Metro Vancouver.

Wright, AJ, and  Robertson FC (eds). (2015) New mitigation methods and evolving acoustics exposure guidelines. Report from the European Cetacean Society Conference Workshop, St. Julian, Malta, European Cetacean Society Special Publication Series No. 59, 76 p.


Booth, GC, and Lacey C. (2014) Static acoustic monitoring for harbour porpoise and dolphins in and around the proposed Navitus Bay Offshore Wind Park using CPODs. Report code SMRUL-ENO-2013-015.

Booth, CG, Plunkett R, and Verfuβ UK. (2014) Interim Marine Mammal And Noise Monitoring At Invergordon Report. Report Number SMRUL-AFF- 2014-003 Provided To Affric Ltd, May 2014 (Unpublished).

Gryba, R, Gregr EJ, Joy R, and Trites AW. (2014) Predicted distributions and biomass of walleye pollock, Pacific cod and Atka mackerel within Steller sea lion critical habitat in Alaska. Fisheries Centre Working Paper 2014-29, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. [Available at]

Harwood, J, King SL, Schick R, Donovan C. and Booth CG. (2014) A protocol for implementing the Interim Population Consequences of Disturbance (PCoD) Approach: quantifying and assessing the effects of UK offshore renewable energy developments on marine mammal populations. Report Number SMRUL-TCE-2013-014. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science, 5(2).

Joy, R, Miller B, Tollit DJ, and Wood J. (2014) Proposed Roberts Bank Terminal 2 Draft Technical Report: Southern Resident Killer Whale Noise Exposure Study. Prepared for Port Metro Vancouver

King, SL. (2014) Navitus Bay Wind Park Marine Mammal Noise Impact Assessment Technical Report. Report code SMRUL-ENO-2013-009.

Lacey, C, and Cox E. (2014) Review of baseline marine mammal data from the site of the proposed Navitus Bay Wind Park. Report code: SMRUL-PMS-2012-014a.

MMO (2014) Review of post-consent offshore wind farm monitoring data associated with licence conditions. A report produced for the Marine Management Organisation, pp 194. MMO Project No: 1031. ISBN: 978-1-909452-24-4.

Navitus Bay Development Ltd. (2014) Navitus Bay Wind Park Environmental Statement Volume B – Offshore Chapter 11 – Marine Mammals. Document April 2014.

Plunkett, R, Sparling CE, and Kidney D. (2014) Anglesey Skerries Marine Mammal Monitoring: Land Based Vantage Point Survey trial. Report Number SMRUM-MCT-2014-012 Provided To MCT, November, 2014 (Unpublished).

Quick, NJ. (2014) Review of the Durlston Project Marine Mammal Database with respect to the site of the proposed Navitus Bay Wind Farm, Isle of Wight. Report code SMRUL-ENO-2013-008.

Savidge, G, Ainsworth D, Bearhop S, Christen N, Elsaesser B, Fortune F, Inger R, Kennedy R, McRobert A, Plummer KE, Pritchard D, Sparling CE, and Whittaker T. (2014) Strangford Lough and the SeaGen Tidal Turbine. Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions. ed. / M.A. Shields; Andrew Payne.

Sparling, CE and Booth CG. (2014) Information to inform HRA for risk of collision between harbour seals and the Minesto Deep Green Device at Strangford Lough. Report number SMRUM-MIN-2014-016 provided to Minesto UK Ltd, December 2014 (unpublished).

2013 and earlier

Booth, CG. (2013) Noise level monitoring during construction works for the Forth Replacement Crossing: Year 1 report. SMRU Ltd report number (SMRUL-FRC-2013-016). May, 2013 (unpublished).

Booth, CG, and Lacey C. (2013) Static acoustic monitoring for harbour porpoise and dolphins in and around the proposed Navitus Bay offshore wind park using C-PODs. SMRU Ltd report number SMRUL-ENO-2013-015. April, 2013 (unpublished).

Gillespie, D, Castellote M, Maginnis A, Garner CD, and RJ Small. (2013) Real time monitoring for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the Eagle River, Alaska using a PAMBuoy® detection system. Final Contract Report by SMRU, LLC and Marine Instruments Ltd. 19p.

Herschel, A, Stephenson S, Sparling CE, Sams C, and Monnington J. (2013) ORJIP Project 4, Phase 1: Use of deterrent devices and improvements to standard mitigation during piling. Report submitted to the Offshore Renewables Joint Industry Programme.

Jones, E, McConnell B, Sparling CE, and Matthiopoulos J. (2013) Grey and harbour seal usage maps. Marine Mammal Scientific Support Research Programme MMSS/001/11. Task MR 5 (part), Sea Mammal Research Unit Report to Scottish Government 28/08/2013 Version 2150.

Sparling, CE. (2013) Sound of Islay Marine Mammal Baseline Data – Year 2 Update. SMRUL-SPR-2013-004 to Scottish Power Renewables. January 2013 (unpublished).

Sparling CE, Coram AJ, McConnell B, Thompson D, Hawkins K, and Northridge SP. (2013) Wave and Tidal consenting Position paper Series: Marine Mammal Impacts. Renewable UK, Scottish Renewables and Natural Environment Research Council publication.

Verfuß, UK, and Booth CG. (2013) Marwick Head Marine Mammal Review–Technical Report. Report number SMRU-L-SPR-2013-021 to ScottishPower Renewables, May, 2013(unpublished).

Wood, JD, Tollit DJ, Redden A, Porskamp P, Broome J, Fogarty L, Booth CG, and Karsten R. (2013) Passive Acoustic Monitoring of Cetacean Activity Patterns and Movements in Minas Passage: Pre-Turbine Baseline Conditions (2011-2012). Final Report for OERA and FORCE. SMRU Ltd Report number NA0713Acadia pp71.

Collar, C, Spahr J, Polagye B, Thomson J, Bassett C, Graber J, Cavagnaro R, Talbert J, de Klerk A, Reay-Ellers A, Tollit DJ, Wood JD, Copping A, Carlson T, and Halvorsen M. (2012) Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbine in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound. Report by Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), SMRU Consulting, and Snohomish County PUD. pp 80.

Grellier, K, and Lacey C. (2012) Analysis of The Crown Estate aerial survey data for marine mammals for the Forth and Tay Offshore Wind Developers Group region. SMRULSGW-2012-015. Unpublished report to The FTOWDG.

Hastie, GD. (2012) Tracking marine mammals around marine renewable energy devices using active sonar. SMRU Ltd report URN: 12D/328 to the Department of Energy and Climate Change. September 2012 (unpublished).

Moray Offshore Renewables Ltd. (2012) Environmental Statement Technical Appendix 7.3 B – Framework for assessing the impacts of pile-driving noise from offshore wind farm construction on Moray Firth harbour seal populations. This document was produced by Natural Power, the University of Aberdeen and SMRU Ltd on behalf of Moray Offshore Renewables Ltd.

Moray Offshore Renewables Ltd. (2012) Environmental Statement Technical Appendix 7.3 C – MORL SAFESIMM noise impact assessment for seals and cetaceans. This document was produced by SMRU Ltd and Natural Power on behalf of Moray Offshore Renewables Ltd.

Moray Offshore Renewables Ltd. (2012) Environmental Statement Technical Appendix 7.3 D – A comparison of behavioural responses by harbour porpoises and bottlenose dolphins to noise: implications for wind farm risk assessments. This document was produced by Natural Power and SMRU Ltd on behalf of Moray Offshore Renewables Ltd.

Moray Offshore Renewables Ltd. (2012) Environmental Statement Technical Appendix 7.3 E – Identification of appropriate noise exposure criteria for assessing auditory injury for Pinnipeds using offshore wind farm sites. This document was produced by the University of Aberdeen, SMRU Ltd and Natural Power on behalf of Moray Offshore Renewables Ltd.

Sparling, CE, Harris C, Donovan C, and Milazzo L. (2012) FTOWDG SAFESIMM Noise Impact Assessment – Seals and Bottlenose dolphins (Neart na Gaoithe). Report number SMRU-LMRP-2012-004 to Mainstream,

Sparling, CE, Russell DF, Lane E, Grellier K, Lonergan ME, McConnell BJ, Matthiopoulous J, and Thompson D. (2012) Baseline Seal Information for the FTWODG Area. SMRUL-FDG-2012-0 to FTOWDG. May 2012 (unpublished).

Wilson, L, Booth CG, and Wilson JM. (2012) An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Strategy document: Investigating the potential impacts of the proposed 10 MW Aegir Wave Farm development on birds, marine mammal species and basking sharks. Report to Aegir Wave Power Ltd (unpublished).

Wood, JD, Southall BL, and Tollit DJ. (2012) PGandE offshore 3‐D Seismic Survey Project EIR –Marine Mammal Technical Draft Report. SMRU Ltd. pp124.

Booth, CG, Lacey C, and Hastie, GD. (2011) Interim Report – July 2011 – Static acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise and dolphins at the proposed jetty construction site – Hinkley. SMRU Ltd Interim Report to CEFAS. July 2011.

Booth, CG, Mackay AI, Northridge S, and Sparling CE. (2011) Acoustic Monitoring of Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Strangford Lough. Report SMRUL-MCT-2011-16 to Marine Current Turbines. July, 2011 (unpublished).

Keenan, G, Sparling CE, Williams H, and Fortune F. (2011) SeaGen Environmental Monitoring Programme Final Report. Submitted to Marine Current Turbines ref: 9S8562/R/303719/Edin.

Macleod, K, Lacey C, Quick NJ, Hastie GD, and Wilson JD. (2011) Guidance on survey and monitoring in relation to marine renewables deployments in Scotland. Volume 2. Cetaceans and Basking Sharks. Unpublished draft report to Scottish Natural Heritage and Marine Scotland.

Quick, NJ, and Cheney B. (2011) Cetacean Baseline Characterisation for the Firth of Tay based on existing data: Bottlenose dolphins. Project reference 270811SGW_FTOWDG Cetaceans.

Sparling, CE, Grellier K, Philpott E, Macleod K, and Wilson J. (2011) Guidance on survey and monitoring in relation to marine renewables deployments in Scotland. Volume 3. Seals. Unpublished draft report to Scottish Natural Heritage and Marine Scotland.

Tollit, DJ, Wood JD, Broomw J, and Redden A. (2011) Detection of marine mammals and effects of monitoring at the NSPI (OpenHydro) turbine site in the Minas Passage during 2010. Prepared for Fundy Ocean Research Centre (FORCE), February 2011.

Duck, C, Black A, Lonergan M, and Mackey B. (2006) The number and distribution of marine mammals in the Fall of Warness, Orkney July 2005-July 2006. SMRU Ltd Report for Aurora Environmental, August 2006.

Philpott, E, Tollit DJ, and Mackey B. (2009) Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Marine Mammals. Report by Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU). pp 45.